Today, when most people hear the name “Gonzaga” they think of the great Jesuit University in Spokane, Washington. For Reformation-era Europeans, the name of Gonzaga meant something very different. Distant relatives of the Holy Roman Emperors and counted among the greatest families of Italy, Spain, and all of Europe, the Gonzaga commanded respect. Military leaders, Marquises, Empresses, Queens, and no fewer than 14 bishops and 12 cardinals were counted among the members this great family. Aloysius, who was born to the Marquis of Castiglione (in Northern Italy) in 1568, received a birthright that would have been practically unrivaled in his day, set, as he was, to inherit not only his father’s vast holdings but the titles, lands, and wealth of two other distant relatives.
|A traditional 19th century representation of St. Aloysius|
Although the Aloysius of history has been lost in a haze of hagiographical excess, I don’t think there is anyone who would doubt that there was something special about this bright, talented, and, by all accounts, charming boy. Endowed with his family’s fiery temper, he channeled his energy into his studies and, most especially, into his faith. In time, however, his life began to spiral out of control as he faced a future that was not of his choosing—preparation to serve as the next Marquis of Castiglione and to take his place among the crowned princes of the Holy Roman Empire. People knew who he was and they sought his favor.
While illness took away some of his youthful vitality, it didn’t curb his spirit and, as a teenager, he began to focus his energies on one reality: the God who was calling him to become more than he or his family ever imagined he might become.
All of this led him down a path that forced him to stand up to the conventions and norms of his day. After all, if he insisted on pursuing a religious vocation, he could very easily have taken his place among the prince-bishops and cardinals who were his relatives. But the young man discerned a different path. He wanted to become a member of a relatively new religious family within the Church—the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola only a few generations before. This step, which his father opposed to the point of literally striking out at his son, would mean that he would have to leave behind his titles, inheritance, and the life that he had known and commit himself to poverty, strict obedience, and celibate chastity, willing to risk everything with no security but the promise of grace and the assurance that comes with faith.
He never looked back.
Although there is lots more that could be said, Aloysius never became the great teacher he promised to become and he never realized his dream of becoming a missionary in Asia. In fact, he never made his final vows as a Jesuit, nor was he ordained a priest. Aloysius Gonzaga died in the night between June 20 and 21, 1591, at the age of twenty-four. It is commonly held that he contracted the illness that took his life when he picked up a dying man in the street and carried him to a Roman hospital, disregarding any danger to himself. After months of painful illness, he died surrounded by his brother Jesuits. This young man counted the royalty of Italy and Spain among his childhood companions, received his first Communion from Saint Charles Borromeo, the cardinal-archbishop of Milan, and had Saint Robert Bellarmine, now honored as a Doctor of the Church, as his spiritual director. But, I believe that if you had asked Aloysius who he was, he would have told you that he was nothing more than a poor son of the Church and of his Holy Father Ignatius, the founder of the Society that Aloysius sought so desperately to join.
Unfortunately, history has not been kind to Aloysius. Once one of the most revered saints of the Church, he has fallen into obscurity in the years since the Second Vatican Council. And yet, he remains among us. His image is still found in countless churches (most often depicted as a young cleric holding a crucifix with lilies [a sign of purity], a crown [representing his abandoned legacy], or even a skull [symbolizing his penitence] lying nearby) and his liturgical memorial is celebrated in churches all over the world on June 21, the anniversary of his death. But, I have to admit that the images and his memorial both inspire and sadden me. While, I am happy to see the man I consider to be both a brother and a friend honored in so many places, remembering how many lives he inspired, I’m also disappointed that the real Aloysius, taken off his pedestal and without his lace surplice, has all but disappeared.
|A contemporary icon of St. Aloysius entitled|
"Aloysius: Similar to Fire"
by William Hart McNichols
In an essay written in 1991, to honor of the 400th anniversary of Aloysius’ death, the great writer and activist, Father Daniel Berrigan, S.J., wrote these words which I believe capture something of the power of Saint Aloysius:
I keep pondering Aloysius, the contrast, the covenant, the vow, the meaning. Even a phosphoric trace in the dark. All or any of these. The heart and longing and hope that arose in him from a small boy, a life of purpose, goodness, sweetness; and all so brief, crushed out of due season…
All too easy to make of this youngster, fighting for his soul’s ransom against enormous odds, an icon just short of bizarre, carefully and studiously remote, nose in the air, rapt gaze, crucifix, lilies delicately in hand, cleaving his way to heaven with scant interest or attention to mere earthlings.
He was tougher than his would-be admirers would have him, both tougher and more tender, enormously more complex, his heaven won by way of many a detour—through hell…
Let us not attempt to democratize Aloysius! No leveling this one; elegance to the fingertips, nobility of spirit, a relentless fiery courage, a choice to go it alone. Then the price he paid, declining the myth of the world as to its claim on such as he. Breaking the mythological clutch (a family affair as well).
The price of all this. (The price we [I] renege on).
As though the great things can be cheaply won; and not turn paltry in the winning.And so, as June 21 approaches, I especially remember this young man, the patron saint of youth and of those with HIV/AIDS and their caregivers, whose name I received at my Confirmation and whose image I carry with me on a medal I received from my grandmother and have worn around my neck for nearly 20 years.
These days, I remember the man I have come to consider my friend and my brother and I continue ask God that I can have some hint of his courage and conviction and, more than these, his charity.
I ask that for all of you, as well.
giver of all heavenly gifts,
who in Saint Aloysius Gonzaga joined penitence to a wonderful innocence of life,
grant through is merits and intercession,
that, though we have failed to follow him in innocence,
we may imitate him in penance.
Through Christ our Lord. Amen.
(Taken from the Roman Missal, the Memorial of Saint Aloysius Gonzaga on June 21)